Protein is a common name for every life source and a crucial term to dignify each and every activity done by a human body. From mental strength to physical effort everything depend on one word protein. When we were in Stone Age we used available source of proteins and when civilization tuck place we cultivated our own source of protein. With time the eatables are divided into several source of protein definitions. But our body DNA never distinguished which type of food we are eating. It only need amino acid to convert into protein source for different functionalities of body.

Amino acid:

  • After food absorbed and formed a denatured protein, the enzymes then merge it into hydrolyzed peptide bonds. The proteins are break down and amino acids are formed.
  • In amino acid bonds it contains amino group a carboxyl group and the unique side chain connected to central carbon.
  • There are plenty of foods available which are rich source of amino acid as cow milk, soy milk, hemp milk, cheese, soy butter, peanuts, walnuts, pistachios, cashews, almonds and many more.
  • Amino acid metabolism is divided into two categories one is catabolism and another is anabolism. In catabolism of amino acid the alpha amino groups are removed and metabolism of carbon skeletons are done. At the end of it the lipids and glucose are formed. In another term it is called as kitogenic and glucogenic.
  • There are several clinical amino acids are available as methionine, histididine, phenylalanine, arginine, glutamine and alanine.

Amino acid metabolism:

  • On and average a human eats 1kg to 2.7kg a day but we are here not to discuss that. We are here to talk about how these amounts of foods are converted into protein sources?
  • After processing of food in mouth the food went through esophagus to the stomach and then to the small intestine. There the digestive fluid process the food and denature the available proteins in it.
  • With help of enzymes then the protein is hydrolyzed. Then the protein bonds are breakdown to form amino acid.
  • Then the amino acid is went to the blood stream and by following the channel the amino acid went to the liver. There it synthesize new protein and the available excess amino acids are supplied to tissues and muscles.
  • Proteins are synthesized by genetic information’s. After protein synthesis the excess amino acids available in blood converted into glucose and fatty acids. These fatty acids are stored in our body as preserved energy source.

Synthesis of protein:

  • A cell contains nucleus and the nucleus having the genome. There a plenty of chromosomes are present. These chromosomes are having a long strand of DNA. The DNA are packed with tightly surrounded proteins called HISTONE.
  • In DNA there are sections called gene which contains instructions to making proteins. The gene is attached to RNA polymerase then the transcription process started. In transcription the messenger RNA contains templates of protein and gradually moves out from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
  • Cytoplasm is a viscous liquid surrounded inside the cell. There the mRNA attached to the ribosome. Including the (transfer)tRNA started making its communications with messenger RNA. tRNA composed of amino acids which is necessary for protein structures. When the tRNA communicated with mRNA in rRNA a chain combination of amino acids are happened until to the last strand of it. After merge of messenger RNA and transfer RNA the amino acid chain detached from the system and formed a complex structure which we called protein. After protein used in several functionalities of body it converted into reference protein which is used in formation of new amino acids.

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